The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 virus induces heme oxygenase-1: Pathophysiologic implications
et al., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease,
In Vitro study transfecting SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein in kidney cell lines, showing syncytia formation and upregulation of the cytoprotective gene HO-1, and that quercetin, which induces HO-1, can reduce syncytia formation. Authors conclude that quercetin may be protective for AKI in COVID-19.
Singh et al., 12/14/2021, peer-reviewed, 9 authors.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.