et al., Turk. J. Biol., 45:518-529 (preprint 1/19/2021) (Peer Reviewed)
RCT 447 moderate-to-severe hospitalized patients in Turkey, 52 treated with quercetin, bromelain, and vitamin C, showing no statistically significant difference in clinical outcomes. NCT04377789
Onal et al., 1/19/2021, Randomized Controlled Trial, Turkey, Europe, peer-reviewed, 10 authors, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with bromelain and vitamin C) - results of individual treatments may vary.
risk of death, 29.3% higher, RR 1.29, p = 0.57, treatment 1 of 49 (2.0%), control 6 of 380 (1.6%).
risk of ICU admission, 94.0% lower, RR 0.06, p = 0.39, treatment 0 of 49 (0.0%), control 14 of 380 (3.7%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of no hospital discharge, 77.8% lower, RR 0.22, p = 0.10, treatment 1 of 49 (2.0%), control 35 of 380 (9.2%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.